Greater than 40 years in the past it used to be verified that the African continent might be divided into 4 specific language households. examine on African languages has hence been preoccupied with reconstructing and realizing similarities throughout those households. This has intended that an curiosity in different kinds of linguistic dating, akin to no matter if structural similarities and dissimilarities between African languages are the results of touch among those languages, hasn't ever been the topic of significant learn. This ebook indicates that such similarities throughout African languages are extra universal than is broadly believed. It presents a wide standpoint on Africa as a linguistic quarter, in addition to an research of particular linguistic areas. so one can have a greater knowing of African languages, their constructions, and their historical past, additional info on those contact-induced relationships is key to figuring out Africa's linguistic geography, and to reconstructing its historical past and prehistory.

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Languages are pointed out via their Guthrie codes as revised and up-to-date via Maho (2003); see textual content for language names languages spoken within the transitional region within the south. a standard pairing of /gb/ and /kp/ is for this reason to be anticipated during this zone. eight so far as their geographic distribution is worried, labial-velar stops are chanced on in over part the languages of the Sudanic belt in our pattern, yet are super rare in languages outdoors this region, no matter if in Africa or in different places. They ensue around the whole Sudanic belt from the Atlantic Ocean within the west to Lake Albert and the Nubian Hills within the east. they're good represented in all significant branches of Niger-Congo other than Dogon, together with, alongside the outer edge of this area, imperative and southern Atlantic languages (e. g. Biafada, Bidyogo, Temne, Kisi, and Gola), numerous Grassfields Bantu languages (e. g. Mundani, Aghem, Yamba, and Nweh), and a Kordofanian language (Kalak/Katla). In Nilo-Saharan they're common of important Sudanic languages, and likewise take place in Dendi Songay, spoken in Benin, and some Nilotic languages (Kuku Bari of southern Sudan, Alur of the DRC). also they are present in a couple of Chadic languages (Bacama in north- jap Nigeria, Daba, Mofu-Gudur, Kada/Gidar, and the Kotoko cluster in Cameroon). As an areal function which cuts throughout genetic traces, they represent a fundamental phonological diagnostic of the Sudanic belt. (See Greenberg 1983 for a fuller description in their geographical unfold, and Gu¨ldemann, bankruptcy five of this quantity, for extra dialogue and a map in their distribution. ) Labial-velar stops usually are not universal in Bantu languages. besides the fact that, they take place in a good variety of northern Bantu languages of zones A, C, and D spoken in the equatorial woodland and Congo Basin from the Atlantic within the west to Lake Albert within the east, as proven in map three. 2. The quarter A languages, spoken from southeastern Cameroon good into Gabon, comprise a number of contributors of the Lundu-Balong staff A10 resembling forty four G. N. Clements and Annie Rialland Londo A11, Bafo A141, and primary Mbo A15C, numerous of the western Duala languages A21–3, Kpa/Bafia A53, Tuki A64, the Ewondo-Fang team A70, and Makaa A83. The quarter C languages, spoken within the critical Congo Basin, contain a number of participants of the Ngundi crew C10 (notably Yaka/Aka C104, Pande C12a, Mbati C13, and Leke C14), many individuals of the Bangi-Ntumba crew C30 spoken among the Ubangi and Congo Rivers, Ngombe C41 with 150,000 audio system, and extra upstream alongside the Congo River, Beo/Ngelima C45, Topoke/Gesogo C53, and Lombo C54. between region D languages, labial- velar stops are present in the Mbole-Ena staff D10 together with Lengola D12, Mituku D13, and Enya D14, in Baali/Bali D21, and much to the east in different contributors of the Bira-Huku crew D30 together with Bila D311, Bira D32, Nyali D33, and Amba D22, the latter spoken within the northern foothills of the Ruwenzori mountains and adjoining components of Uganda. good to the south of the Congo River on the southern restrict of the tropical woodland, labial-velar stops happen in a number of roots in Sakata C34.

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